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LIFE EXTENSION DRUGS

THE DRUGS, TESTED for LIFE EXTENSION, ARE WITH DIFFERENT CHEMICAL STRUCTURE. MOST ARE NATURAL PRODUCTS, SOME ARE FOUND IN LIVING ORGANISMS, SOME ARE ALREADY EXISTING DRUGS, FOR EXAMPLE: THE WIDELY USED ANTI-DIABETIC DRUG METFORMIN;

THE NATURAL PRODUCT RAPAMYCIN, USED AS AN IMMUNOSUPRESSIVE DRUG IN KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION, WHOSE AGE EXTENSION ACTIVITY OF 28-38% ON ELDERLY MICE WAS REPORTED IN 2009.

SCIENTISTS OFTEN STATE THAT THE MECHANISM OF THEIR ACTION CONSISTS IN TARGETING THE HEALTH PROMOTING GENES OR IN MIMICKING CALORY RESTRICTION.

 

Resveratrol

NAME: trans-resveratrol; trans-3,5,4'-Trihydroxystilbene; (E)-5-(4-hydroxystyryl)benzene-1,3-diol

ORIGIN: Natural product, found in several plants, also in the skin of red grapes and wine.

 

Commercial source: Japanese Knotweed is a large, herbaceous plant, native to eastern Asia in Japan, China and Korea, in Japanese ‘itadori’, a traditional Chinese medicinal treatment.

 

ACTIVITY & APPLICATIONS: Cancer prevention; Diabetes; Alzheimer disease (in mice)

 

LIFE EXTENSION:

 

Prolongs lifespan of the yeast microorganism (2003, Nature 425 by Howitz K., Sinclair D.)

Prolongs lifespan of worms, fruit fly (2004, studies performed by SinclairD., Nature 430);

Increased the lifespan by 59% of fish (2006, Current Biology 16 by Valenzano D.),

Improves health & survival of mice (2006, Nature 444 Sinclair D.);

Delays age-related deterioration in elderly mice (2008, Cell Metab 8, Pearson KJ, et al.).

 

MECHANISMS OF ACTION:

Mimic the biochemical effects of calorie restriction. Improves mithohondrial function by activating the gene Sirtuin: (2006, Cell 127 by Lagouge M., France; 2004 PLoS Biol. 2; 2005 J Biol Chem. 280 Kaeberlein M.);

Induced oxidative stress resistance (2008, Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 367 by Robb E.)

 

 

 

RAPAMYCIN

NAME: Sirolimus;

(3S,6R,7E,9R,10R,12R,14S,15E,17E,19E,21S,23S,26R,27R,34aS)-9,10,12,13,14,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,32,33,34,34a-hexadecahydro-9,27-dihydroxy-3-[(1R)-2-[(1S,3R,4R)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycyclohexyl]-1-methylethyl]-10,21-dimethoxy-6,8,12,14,20,26-hexamethyl-23,27-epoxy-3H-pyrido[2,1-c][1,4]-oxaazacyclohentriacontine-1,5,11,28,29(4H,6H,31H)-pentone

ORIGIN & source:

Natural product, discovered in a soil from Easter Islands (Rapa Nui) as a biosynthetic product of bacteria.

ACTIVITY & APPLICATIONS:

Antifungal agent; Immunosuppressant drug used in kidney transplantation; Antiproliferative effects used in cancer  treatment.

 

LIFE EXTENSION:

 

Prolongs with 28-38% the lifespan of heterogeneous mice at advanced age

(July 2009, Nature 460 by Harrison D. et al.,USA)

 

MECHANISMS OF ACTION:

Inhibits the m-TOR path by binding the m-TOR complex ( FKBP protein)

 

 

MELATONIN

 

NAME: N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, N-[2-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]ethanamide

ORIGIN/ source:

Naturally occuring hormone, produced by the pineal gland of the brain with light/dark dependence. Found in animals, algae and rice. Related to the change of skin colour and the seasonal clock in animals.

ACTIVITY & APPLICATIONS:

Antioxidant; Immunostimulator; Reduces Parkinson desease, Arrythmia; Insomnia; Autism; Cancer; Cardiovascular deseases; Drug abuse

 

 

LIFE EXTENSION:

 

Increased the lifespan of mice by 20%

(2003,Exp.Geron.38, Ansimov V. et al.).

 

MECHANISMS OF ACTION:

Protection of the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.

 

 

METFORMIN

NAME:N,N-dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide

ORIGIN/ source:

Natural product, found in the French lilak (Galega officinalis)

ACTIVITY & APPLICATIONS:

Common anti-diabetic drug;

Fights cancer & tumor stem cells

(August 2009, Gastroenterology 137 by Li D.; 2009 Cancer Research & 2009, Diabets care 32 by Libby G.)

 

 

LIFE EXTENSION:

 

Increased the lifespan of mice by 13%

(2005  Exp Gerontol. Anizimov V et al.).

 

MECHANISMS OF ACTION:  Mimic the biochemical effects of calorie restriction.

 

 

 

DHEA

 

NAME: Dehydroepiandrosterone , (3S,8R,9S,10R,13S,14S)-3-hydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16- dodecahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one

ORIGIN/ source:

Naturally occuring hormone, the most abundant steroid in humans, produced by the adrenalin gland and the brain. Prohormone for the sex steroids. Produced from cholesterol through enzimes.

ACTIVITY & APPLICATIONS:

Antidepressant; Treatment of Alzheimer desease;

Performance-enhancing drug used by athletes;

Hormonal replacement; Disputed increased risk of breast cancer

 

 

LIFE EXTENSION:

 

Increased the lifespan of men in 15-year follow-up

(2008, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 56 by Enomoto, Mika et al.).

 

 

 

2-Deoxyglucose

NAMES: 2DG, 2-deoxy-d-glucose, (4R,5S,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,4,5-triol

 

ORIGIN/ source: Naturally occuring in most animal cells

 

ACTIVITY & APPLICATIONS:

Antitumor activity by inhibiting glucolysis

(2006, Oncogene 25 by Pelicano H.et al.);

Anti-epileptic drug

(2006, Nat Neurosci 9 by Gariga-Canut M. et al) ;

Optical medical imaging agent in vivo.

 

LIFE EXTENSION:

Increased the lifespan of worms

(2007,Cell metab.6, Schulz et al., Germany)

 

MECHANISMS OF ACTION:

 Mimic the biochemical effects of calorie restriction, including mittochondria respiration

 

 

TA-65

 

NAME:

9,19-Cyclolanostane-3,6,16,25-tetrol, 20,24-epoxy-, (3beta,6alpha,16beta,24R)- Cycloastragenol

ORIGIN/ source:

Natural product found in the roots of Astragalus (Astragalus verrucosus). Astragalus has been used for centuries as a Traditional Chinese Medicine. Produced by Geron Co in USA.

ACTIVITY & APPLICATIONS:

Nutritional supplement with anti-aging activity

 

LIFE EXTENSION:

Increases the lifespan of humans (Geron Co and China)

 

MECHANISMS OF ACTION: Activates the gene making telomerase.



The article is copyright protected, refer to my lecture "Science and Science Fiction toward Life Extension" in the TokyoTech & UNESCO Symposium, 2009




Specially collected from me thorough information on the scientific ways to life extension, pls refer to me and my Japanese lecture:


Calorie restriction Life extension drugs Genetic Engineering Cloning


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